Sunday, 19 April 2015

Macro Diffusion for the Mirrorless Camera system

.... Continuation from my previous post on the types of Equipment I use.

The truth is, most modern cameras and lenses that are available out there in the market, regardless of the system, are more than capable of achieving good if not great macro images on its own merit. Having said that, then why are our photos failing to deliver desirable results, time and time again? More often than not, it probably has to do with Lighting, or to be more specific, the lack of Proper Diffused Lighting. This is the one most important aspect of (macro) photography that would be the differentiating factor between mediocre, good, and great photos.

Before I begin, I would like to gently remind that there is no one-size-fits all solution when it comes to lighting - Every subject matter and shooting environment comes with its own set of inherent challenges and it is up to us to manipulate the lights to create the most pleasing results, so do not be afraid to experiment. Just to be clear, henceforth, I will be discussing solely on TTL fill-flash and not natural-light photography, and since this is a site dedicated to the mirrorless system, I will approach this topic from that angle, although I can assure you that most of the points that I will be covering stand true for DSLRs as well.

1) What is considered a Properly Diffused Lighting?

An ideal diffusion of the fill-flash would result in the even distribution of the light from the flash to the subject, minimising any hotspots or shadow spots by wrapping light around the subject matter(s).

A clear illustration would be:

Imagine that you are photographing a ping pong ball. A properly diffused lighting would be able to
reach all if not most of the surface area of the ball with the right and even exposure.

A properly diffused lighting should also be able to solve or alleviate these problems:

a) Subject matter with odd shapes and shiny, reflectives surfaces.

This Cosmophasis sp. jumping spider would be the ideal example of a difficult subject to photograph. It is tiny (5mm) and highly reflective, especially the eyes!

b) Poor distribution of light; Focused on just one or more scattered spots.

Pls excuse the extremely graphic use of Microsoft Paint but you get my point.
2) What are some of the considerations to take note of when aiming for a Proper Diffusion?

a)  The design specifications of your mirrorless system (Mirrorless systems have a much shorter distance between flash head and front of lens as compared to a regular DSLRs, due to its smaller size)
b)  The Guide Number (GN) or power of the flash
c) The types of materials that you can use as diffusion and the appropriate amount of layers.
d) Wastage of light due to light leakage.

Lets us dwell deeper into point (a) and (b) for a bit before moving on to the other points in just a while. It seemed like what lured me to the mirror less system in the first place was also a source of my initial problems - its  size. As we all know, most mirrorless systems are tiny and if you recently made the switch from a DSLR where the mantra seems to be 'the bigger the flash, the better', it takes a lot of getting used to. Just remember that this is not the case when it comes to a mirrorless system, as a matter of fact, it is the exact opposite!

3) How to choose the right flash for your type of macro work.

Factor of exponents and Guide Number

When choosing a flash for your mirrorless camera, resist the temptation to go with the biggest flash you can find. Instead, choose a flash based on its Guide Number that is appropriate for the length of the lens in terms of providing the right exposure when shooting a subject at your preferred shooting/working distance. In general, the higher the Guide Number of the flash, the more powerful it is. The question is then, what would be the minimum GN needed for my close-up shots? The answer is in this formula:

GN (guide number) = f-stop number X Distance (flash to subject)

So let's say that the distance (flash head to subject, not front of lens to subject) of my macro lens (M. Zuiko Digital ED 60mm f/2.8)  for my 1:1 magnification shots is approximately 30cm at a f-stop number of 11 (full format equivalent of f22 due to X2 crop factor) and with an ISO of 100. So by applying the formula, the minimum Guide Number needed for a correct exposure at these settings is:

GN (guide number) = f22 X 0.3meters
                                = 6.6metre or 21.6 feet

What does these numbers above means to you and me? To give you a point of reference, my smallest flash, the Olympus fl-LM2, that comes with free with the OMD EM1, has a guide number of 7 meters (22 feet) so what this simply means is that, technically, this flash is sufficient for my 1:1 magnification shots - the bare minimum GN needed to correctly expose my subjects at a distance of 30cm. Of course, this is not ideal especially when I am shooting larger subjects at a much lower magnification, and that is why I decided that the default flash simply won't cut it for my type of macro work.

The Olympus fl-LM2 with a GN of 22 (feet). Sorry for the lousy IQ, taken with a mobile phone.
Probably not ideal flash for larger subjects like this Agamid, due to the low GN.
In a nutshell, the main points that I want to bring across are:

a) Be aware of your preferred settings for the usual group of subjects that you photograph often (eg. f11 for beetles smaller than 5mm at a working distance of 10cm or f5.6 for a large lizard at working distance of 50cm, etc).

b) Choose a flash with the appropriate GN. The larger the GN, the larger the flash usually is in terms of size and relative power. Remember; you are shooting close-up photos of insects and not birds high up on trees so don't overkill it.

The Olympus fl-14 with a GN of 46 (feet). I decided on this flash due to its relative high GN and low-profile design.
The Olympus fl-50r with a GN of 146 (feet)! Too big and powerful for my type of work.
I figured that the Olympus fl-14 (GN 46) has more than sufficient power for my type of macro work. Putting on the Olympus fl-50r (GN 146) would be an overkill for me, plus it is way too big for my liking. I prefer to keep it small and light!

4) Suitable materials for Diffusers

There are many materials out there that would be suitable for macro work although I have my preference. Some of the more common materials:

a) Tissue towel
b) styrofoam
c) Packing foam
d) tracing paper
e) Thin translucent sheets of plastic

I have experimented with all the above, even layering some of them in creating some of my own diffusers. Most of them are pretty good in terms of the overall results although realistically, some would not last 30 minutes out in the field, given the wet climate conditions where i live. The other considerations apart from durability would be the flex-rate and of course, the actual light-distribution capability of the material. After taking into account all of my pre-requisites, and after months of testing, I finally decided to settle on packing foam as the base material for my diffusers.

5) How many layers is appropriate?

This depends on the Guide Number of your flash. The stronger your flash, the thicker the diffuser must be. I personally engage just one main diffuser, fitted around the lens, for less reflective or larger subjects. For rounder or very shiny, reflective subjects, I would insert another layer in between the flash and the main diffuser. The idea here is to spread the light as much as possible so the further the diffuser is away from the light source, the better. Remember, the purpose of the diffuser is not to cut out the light but rather to spread it across a larger surface area.

Main Diffuser with 4 layers of thin packing foam spray-glued together.
Phaeacius cf. malayensis with single diffuser.

For more reflective subjects, I insert an additional layer of foam between the reflector and the main diffuser.
A pair of Dipterans with dual layer diffusion.
7) Reflectors

A reflector is basically any flat object, preferably made from a durable lightweight material that is placed directly over the flash head to direct the light towards the diffuser.Having a good reflector would prevent the leakage of valuable light, especially if you are settling for a smaller flash with a lower GN. I have experimented with various store-bought and DIY designs and I find that the store-bought ones are pretty much useless in terms of light distribution and usability so I prefer to make my own.

Some considerations when making your own reflector.

1) Choose a dark coloured reflector, preferably black and avoid translucent or tinted materials as it would end up throwing coloured lights onto the subject and the surrounding scene.

2) Line the inside of the reflector with aluminium tape. Avoid making the mistake of scrunching up the aluminium tape before applying it - this would only scatter the light. You don't want to scatter the light but rather direct it.

3) Think about how you can minimise light-leakage.

Version 2.0 - It can be completely flat-packed for easy storage!

Ready to roll!

There is certainly a lot of to talk about with regards to the topic of diffusion but I reckoned this short tutorial would be more than sufficient to assist you in designing your very own diffusers for your mirrorless set-up. Feel free to contact me here or on my personal Facebook Page should you have any further questions or suggestions for my future posts. Have fun experimenting and do remember that a larger flash does not necessarily mean that it the better choice, especially not for our tiny machines!

UPDATE (1 Nov 2016) : Click here to for a tutorial on how to make your very own Concave Diffuser!

Interested to learn backlighting and how to re-create shots like the one shown below? Click here to find out more!


  1. I was quite taken by your description here and I now have a similar setup, with an EM5 and the 60mm macro. I find diffraction is very evident beyond about f8 and any slightly underexposed areas are very noisy. Is your experience the same ?

    1. Hi Mick, thank you for your question. I am currently using an OMD EM1 that comes with diffraction compensation via the FDP2 system, unlike its predecessor the EM5. I did ran into some diffraction problems with the latter but not so much with the EM1. Diffraction usually occurs in my photos when the light source is insufficient and that is why I placed a lot of emphasise on my lighting.There are also other possible contributing factors such as the native ISOs of both cameras, etc.

    2. Thanks, as I understand it FDP2 is just a bit of extra sharpening when producing the JPG, so I can do that in Lightroom. I am getting very acceptable results at f8, so I'll continue with that. The EM5 hotshoe flash with a packing foam diffuser gets me 1/160th and f8 at ISO 400 over macro distances, with about 1 stop underexposure I find. I have Nikon and Fuji X systems as well, so I'm not looking to spend a lot on OMD kit, but the focussing, lightness and speed of the OMD make it really useable for field macro. Although the Fuji X is far superior for image quality, the Fujinon 60mm macro is relatively hopeless at finding macro focus and is only 1:2 at max. BTW, I hear that Metz are bringing out a new small 20+ GN flash soon, so I may get that when it arrives.

    3. Hi Mick, thanks for the reply. I personally would not purchase the Metz because with a GN of just 20+ feet, it wouldn't be ideal for anything further than 30cm from the flash head. My recommendation is, if you're looking for something small and powerful, to go for the inexpensive Olympus fl-14 (GN 46). This is the smallest flash you can find on the market that would be versatile enough for most shooting scenarios (close-up, portraiture) and because of it size and design, allow for easier diffusion when used with an EM1 or EM5. The hotshoe OMD Em5 flash has a GN of just 22 (barely enough for 1:1). Having said that, you must understand that with your foam diffusion comes some cutting of light, thus explaining your 1 stop underexposure.

      My usual settings when shooting 1:1 with the EM5 and Olympus fl-14 flash:

      1) Keep the native lowest ISO, in this case 200
      2) Set the flash exposure compensation to +1,2, or 3 on the camera depending on how close the subject is.
      3) Use spot metering.
      4) Shutter speed: 1/125th of a second
      5) Aperture: between f5.6 to 11 depending on the which area of the subject I want to be in focus.

      I used to have the Fuji XT1 - it is an awesome camera with superior IQ but i find the menu system too cumbersome plus I like the fact that the OMD has the IS inbuilt into the camera unlike Fuji. Have you tried using an adaptor to mount the Olympus M. Zuiko onto your Fuji? Anyway is there a way I can view some of your work? Would love to see them. :)


      Faiz B.

    4. When I say GN20+ I mean metres, not feet. Oly body IS is great. Fuji menus, controls and Q button seem simple to me, depends what you are used to.

    5. ps. The FL-14 (GN 14 metres) is very sweet but expensive here in the UK, and has no bounce etc.
      TTL should take care of the loss of light from the diffuser, no ?.
      My Flickr is - I make no claims to art, but I think your photos are very good and backlighting looks great.
      Cheers. M.

    6. Oh 76 feet is a good GN.. but i wonder what the design is like. I like the fl-14 because of its low-profile look thus easier to diffuse.. No i don't know if TTL takes care of the loss of light but based on personal experience, i doubt so. Anyway, thanks for the very nice compliment. :)

      Will have a look at your work soon!

  2. One question.

    Canon has MT-24EX - Olympus has STF-22.
    Both are two-headed, not very heavy, and heads are free - on their connecting wires.

    Why do you prefer one on-camera flash or two large "ordinary" flashes?

    1. Hi, thanks for your question.The problem with Canon MT-24EX and Olympus STF-22 lies in its design. The flash heads are right in front of the lens, making it extremely difficult to engage the use of a Victor's diffuser which is normally mounted directly on top of the lens (see my diffuser pic above).

      I prefer using regular flash because:

      1) It is easier to diffuse as it is not "stuck" to my lens. The closer the flash is to your subject, the more harsh the light will be.
      2) It is far more cheaper.
      3) I can easily remove my flashes for backlighting use.
      4) No messy wires.

      If you're thinking of a dual-flash set-up, i would highly recommend that you get two regular flashes with wireless capabilities, mount them on a Fotopro dual-flash arm, and trigger them as slaves with your onboard flash. It is far more versatile than buying a "dedicated" macro dual-flash like the MT-24EX.

  3. Thanks for your answer :) - I'm new to macro and now trying to understand what and how to do - and especially how to manage the light.

    Two regular flashes are too heavy and - which for me is more important - enormously clumsy.

    I have a self-made "arms", they consists of several steel plates and are attached to the long (about 12cm) arca-compatible steel plate - and, it seems to me, they can easily carry not only flashes, but also me myself, my assistant, two power stations, several reflectors and a 4wd to carry all this.

    But they are _very_ heavy, too.

    My 1d4 is itself by no means compact - and with two flashes it becomes something like missile launcher - and inevitably needs a tank to move and shoot.

    And those fotopro arms are not very long - it seems to me, that with a lens about 200mm (canon 180L or nikon 200/4 - my favourite lenses for field macro) the whole system has very little light versatility.

    Laowa is now trying to sell it's new macro-flash, with heads on flexible arms - and it's not so expensive just to try&buy, though reviews (rather few) are not very enthusiastic.

    To think and try to make adequate diffusors for these heads is interesting - maybe, I'll try; it'll be also suitable for using two-headed flashes in general.

    Or to use some junior flashes - canon 270EX, nikon sb400 etc - with triggers - and without wires...

    1. Hey, no worries. You must a professional photographer, i reckon, judging from your gears and the fact that you have an assistant! :)

      I was a canon user myself before migrating to the mirror less system, and I had a dual flash-system with two 270-EX mark 2 flashes. Results are great BUT it comes at a price.. the weight! I also have a single flash system and I actually prefer it to my dual-flash system for obvious reasons. You can check out some of my canon gears here:

      All the best mate! Do hit me up with a picture of your new macro rig. ;)

  4. Before asking questions - certainly I've read twice and thrice about your experience and your systems :)))

    And: you've used 270EXII with 7d without any triggers, with in-camera flash as a master?

    1. Yup you're right.. The 270 ex has a slave function :)

  5. Hi, Thank you for your blog, i have been getting my OM10 setup for macro and really appreciate the advice i found on your website. i'm using the 60 mm Olympus zuiko macro lens and a Nissin i 40 flash. keen to know where you got your extension tubes and adaptor ring for the raynox. thanks

    1. Hi Ian! Thanks for reading my blog, glad you found it useful. I got my extension tubes here from a chinese website. Link here:,201444_6,201409_5

      I am assuming that you are using a clip-on for your raynox like me? I use a 46-58 step-up ring that i screw onto the my M.Zuiko 60mm lens to allow me to clip the raynox. I bought this step-up ring at the same website too. Link here:

      I have no issues so far ordering from the website. Do read the feedback column before buying to see the reliability of the seller.

      Hope this helps!

  6. Sounds like we've come at this from the same direction
    [url=][img][/img][/url][url=]My current favorite set-up for field work - Olympus EM, 60mm macro lens, pair of FL-300Rs on Photomed bracket w/ arca clamp for easy on/off and DIY diffuser on cheap screw on lens hood w/ matching cap.[/url] by [url=]Coleop Guy1[/url], on Flickr

    1. Hi! Tried checking out your links but they didn't work.


    3. Interesting set-up. I was previously using a dual flash system on my canon but find it difficult to diffuse properly. Would be interesting to see your results.


      most of these are taken with this setup - works well, since you can set all three at manual or Auto, etc

  7. Sounds like we came at this from much the same angle - I've finally settled on this wireless setup. I find exposure is as important as diffusion - shoot to the left and fix in post.

  8. Amazing blog. Just build my cone diffuser after watching you tutorial. I also noticed you have what looks like focus light attached to your camera- could you tell me how is it mounted? Thank you!!!